亚美ag旗舰厅app下载新闻

2022年3月9日

More air pollution present in areas with historical 注销

Cars on a road with houses and mountains in the background

研究ers at the 亚美ag旗舰厅app下载 and UC Berkeley have found that housing discrimination practices dating from the 1930s still drive air pollution disparities in hundreds of American 城市 today.Sarah McQuate/亚美ag旗舰厅app下载

Despite dramatic improvements in air quality over the past 50 years, people of color at every income level in the United States are exposed to higher-than-average levels of air pollution. 虽然这种差异已经被广泛研究, the links between today’s air pollution disparities and historic patterns of racially segregated planning are still being uncovered.

Now a new study from a team of researchers at UC Berkeley and the 亚美ag旗舰厅app下载 has found that housing discrimination practices dating from the 1930s still drive air pollution disparities in hundreds of American 城市 today. In this study — the first to do a national-level analysis of modern urban air pollution and historical 注销 — the team examined more than 200 城市 and found a strong correlation between present-day air pollution levels and historical patterns of 注销.

研究人员 发表了他们的发现 3月9日环境科学 & 技术信.

“1930年代的种族主义, and racist actions by people who are no longer alive, are still influencing inequality in air pollution exposure today,”作者说 朱利安•马歇尔, a 亚美ag旗舰厅app下载 professor of civil and environmental engineering. “The problems underlying environmental inequality by race are larger than any one city or political administration. We need solutions that match the scale of the problem.”

术语“注销” describes a widespread federally backed discriminatory mortgage appraisal practice in the 1930s. This process color-coded city areas red if they included high concentrations of Black, 亚洲, 移民或工薪阶层居民, deeming these areas hazardous and excessively risky for investment. Redlining blocked access to favorable lending and other services. Historically redlined areas have been cumulatively affected by a low prevalence of home ownership, 不平衡经济发展, 位移的居民, community disintegration and lack of access to education and economic opportunities.

西雅图的红色地图. Click on a neighborhood or a grade for more details. 信贷: 映射不平等

 研究人员 compared year-2010 levels of two regulated air pollutants — nitrogen dioxide (NO2; a short-lived gas emitted by traffic, industry and other sources), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5; longer-lived, 灰尘中的微小颗粒, 烟尘, smoke and other emissions or formed in the atmosphere) — to 注销 maps in 202 U.S. 城市.

在这些城市, redlined areas consistently had higher levels of pollution today than  areas that received favorable treatment. 事实上, air pollution disparities associated with 注销 status  were even larger than those associated with race and ethnicity.

The study highlights the “distinct inequities that affect people in all neighborhoods, 不考虑红线等级,第一作者说。 哈雷巷, a doctoral student in civil and environmental engineering at UC Berkeley. “It also emphasized the importance of identifying and improving conditions in those neighborhoods which have been systematically isolated from financial investment through practices like 注销 while being subjected to increased environmental exposures for decades.”

The long-lasting implications of historical segregation on present-day disparities are striking, 根据研究人员.

The team also found racial disparities within redlined neighborhoods, suggesting that housing discrimination is one of many factors propelling environmental racism. 换句话说, white people who happen to live in redlined neighborhoods still have lower air pollution exposure than people of color in the same community. That trend held across non-redlined and redlined neighborhoods alike, the researchers said.

“This study underscores how the past is still very much present when it comes to air pollution disparities,资深作家说。 约书亚的利润率文学系助理教授 & 环境工程 and the School of 公共卫生 at UC Berkeley. “Redlining is a good predictor of air pollution disparities but it’s only one of the things that drive the racial and ethnic disparities in air pollution. It’s not the only source of disparity that we need to be worried about.”

The research goes “a long way toward highlighting the lasting consequences of structural racism on community health,”作者说 瑞秋Morello-Frosch, a professor of 公共卫生 and Environmental 科学, Policy and Management at UC Berkeley and co-author of the study. “These results can point the way toward targeted approaches for regulating emission sources and reducing exposures, as well as longer-term strategies to address discriminatory land-use decision-making that adversely impacts communities of color.”

This publication was developed as part of the Center for Air, Climate, and Energy Solutions (卡塞斯),该项目由美国政府资助.S. 美国环境保护局(R835873).

欲了解更多信息,请联系马歇尔 jdmarsh@uw.edu 和利润率 jsapte@berkeley.edu.

改编自 一个版本 从加州大学伯克利分校.

标记: , , ,